Basic principles for OpenGrey search
Enter one or more words to start your search
You can narrow down the number of results by choosing an additional
criteria in "Refine your search"
Start a new search by selecting a hyperlinked word in either the
list of results or in the record display
In the latter case the number of hits may be superior to the result
of the initial search.
Using the search engine (Exalead)
The implicit operator used on Exalead between different
words typed in the same field is “AND”.
The default operator between the different fields in an
advanced search is also “AND” (by default).
- " (quotation marks)
- to run an exact search in a field, you need to enter the words
between quotation marks. However please note that the search
carried out will not be a truly exact search because the search
engine will take out all the “stop words” (such as 'a,' 'the,'
and 'in'). However this type of search also excludes all
documents which contain the search terms specified but not in
the correct order or one after the other.
e.g.: grey literature will find records with the
words grey and literature, whereas "grey
literature" will find records with the exact term
- * (Truncation)
an asterisk placed at the end of a term – or after the
first letters of a word – runs a search on all words
beginning with... the term or first letters. This can be used to
search for singular and/or plural forms of a term.
- e.g.: Article* will find article, articles
- + (plus)
- this can be used to run an exact search for the term after this operator.
- e.g.: entering +windmills will search for all documents which contain the exact word windmills and will ignore the singular form windmill. The + operator can also be used to run a search which includes linking words (such as the, a, of, or, and) which are ignored with the default search.
- - (minus)
- excludes certain terms from a search.
- e.g.: sustainable development –windmills: this will search for all documents which contain the phrase sustainable development but do not contain the word windmills.
- searches for all documents which contain both terms.
- e.g.: sustainable development AND windmills: this search will return documents containing the phrase sustainable development and the word windmills
- searches for documents using more advanced logic.
- e.g.: sustainable development OR pollution: this search will return all documents containing the phrase sustainable development or the word windmills.
- excludes a term or phrase from the search.
- e.g.: sustainable development NOT windmills: this search will return all documents containing the phrase sustainable development but which do not contain the word windmills.
- searches for documents in which the terms entered are, by default, within sixteen words of one another in the text.
- this operator can be used to specify the maximum distance between two search terms.
- e.g.: sustainable NEAR/5 development: this will return all documents in which sustainable is found at most five words away from development.
- BEFORE / AFTER
- can be used to search for documents created before or after a specified date.
- e.g.: sustainable BEFORE 2004: returns all documents published before 2004.
- this operator can be used to run a search for optional words. If these are not included in a document, the document will still be displayed in the results list. All documents containing the word after OPT will be displayed first on the list but those documents which do not include the word after OPT will still be displayed.
- e.g.: sustainable development OPT windmills: this search will return all the documents containing both sustainable development and windmills first, and then all documents which only contain sustainable development.
3. Specific operators
- this operator allows to search based on phonetic spelling
- e.g.: soundslike:exaleed
- this operator can be used for a search with an approximate spelling
- e.g.: spellslike:exlaead
- Logical expression
- Exalead allows you to search for multiple words and exclude other words.
- e.g.: ((fast OR speed) AND NOT light)
- Regular expression
- it is possible to search using regular expressions. Regular expressions are introduced by the character '/'. Inside a regular expression, the point ('.') can be used in place of any character, the '*' is used to specify a repetition of character. '|' means 'or ' and parentheses can be used to group characters. Regular expressions can be used to specify with great precision a fuzzy set of terms.
- e.g.: /mpg(1|2|3)?/ finds mpg1, mpg2, mpg3.
- e.g.: /gr.y/ finds gray and grey
4. Advanced Research
Exalead allows searching by field / specific index.
The following syntaxe must be used: research criteria in lower case, followed by a colon and the search term(s)
- Runs a search on an individual author (person) or a corporate author (organization), a conference name or a university (thèsis)
- e.g.: author:Smith
author:Istituto Superiore di Sanita
- [Field names in XML: dc.contributor.*, dc.thesis.university]
- Runs a search in the words of an abstract (added from 1997 onwards)
- e.g.: abstract:"travelling salesman problem"
- [Field names in XML: dc.description.abstract et dc.description.abstractalt]
- Allows to search by document type (controlled list) or by subtype (conference preprint; PhD thesis,…)
- e.g.: type:thesis - runs a search in the global category "thesis"
- type:Ph.D - returns only Ph.D theses
- [Field names in XML: dc.type.none et dc.type.subtype]
- Allows you to search by the title of the series or collection the item belongs to
- e.g.: series:report
- [Field names in XML: dc.relation.ispartofseries]
- Runs a search in any field with an identifier(Report number, ISSN, ISBN, etc)
- e.g.: identifier:ECRC-RR--79/1
- [Field names in XML: dc.identifier.*]
- Search classifications and standardized subject headings such as DDC or UDC or MeSH, etc. Please note that these fields are rarely filled in.
- e.g.: subject:330.94
- [Field names in XML: dc.subject.*]
- Returns the commercial publisher of documents
- e.g.: publisher:TextRelease
- [Field names in XML: dc.publisher.none]
- Returns items according to their country of origin. Enter either the ISO 2-caracter code or the English name of the country
- e.g.: country:FR
- [Field names in XML: dc.country.iso]
Further possible fields (seldom used)
- Runs a search on the responsibility statement according to IFLA rules
- [Field name in XML: dc.descrition.statementofresponsability]
- Search the table of contents
- e.g.: toc:biographical notes
- [Field name in XML: dc.description.tableofcontents]
- Search the partner organization providing the record
- e.g.: partner:bldsc
- [Field name in XML: dc.partner.documentprovider]
- Permet de chercher sur le type MIME d’un document attaché (limité aux conférences GL)
- e.g.: mime:pdf
- Allows a search on records with a file attached (possible values: 0, 1)
- e.g.: file:1 - returns records with at least one file attached
- Allows to search the presence of a link to the full text document on a distant website in a record (possible values: 0, 1)
- [Field name in XML: dc.relation.uri]
- Searches one precise record in OpenGrey using the suffix of its persistent identifier
- e.g.: handle:13530 - returns the record http://hdl.handle.net/10068/13530
Limitation of results by refinement
Instead of refining your search by a click on the proposed categories you can also use the search mode for the following criteria. The search is run in one field only
- Individual author (person)
- e.g.: person:Smith
- [Field name in XML: dc.contributor.author]
- Corporate author (organization, institute)
- e.g.: organization:Istituto Superiore di Sanita
- [Field names in XML: dc.contributor.corporate; dc.thesis.university]
- Search the SIGLE classification code (either code or wording)
- e.g.: discipline:05B
- [Field name in XML: dc.subject.classification]
- Runs a search on English language keywords (If no English title is given, keywords may be the only information in English)
- e.g.: keyword:knapsack
- [Field name in XML: dc.subject.none]
- Year of publication (4 digits)
- e.g.: year:2002
- [Field name in XML: dc.date.copyright]
- Search the language of the document with an ISO code (2 caracters)
- e.g.: lang:lv – lists documents written in Latvian/dd>
- [Field name in XML: dc.language.iso]
- Search by document type (controlled list) - either by its code or by its wording
- e.g.: doctype:thesis - returns theses
doctype:K - lists conference proceedings
- [Field name in XML: dc.type.none]
- Allows to search the country of origin of the bibliographic reference
- e.g.: origin:ES - returns records from Spain
- [Field name in XML: dc.country.iso]